Society of Ethical and Religious Vegetarians

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Compiled by Richard H. Schwartz and Norm Phelps

(Religions are listed alphabetically.)


Kapleau, Philip, To Cherish All Life: A Buddhist Case for Becoming Vegetarian, The Zen Center, Rochester, 1981, 104 pages. This is the standard work on Buddhism and vegetarianism by a highly respected American Zen master who studied for 13 years in Japan and returned home to found the Rochester Zen Center. In it, Kapleau Roshi discusses the Buddhist view of animals, the first precept ("Do not kill"), the Buddha's diet, and other key issues. Available from the Rochester Zen Center, 7 Arnold Park, Rochester, NY 14607-2082, 716-473-9180,

Lawrence, Kate, "Nourishing Ourselves, Nourishing Others: How Mindful Food Choices Reduce Suffering," in Mindfulness in the Marketplace: Consuming with Compassion, edited by Allan Hunt Badiner (Berkeley: Parallax Press, 2002).  This recent essay is an important advance on other discussions of Buddhism and vegetarianism, discussing not only the first precept but the second and fifth precepts, the idea of right livelihood, and the issue of eating an "animal killed especially for you." 

"Meat: To Eat it or Not: A Debate on Food and Practice" in Tricycle: The Buddhist Review, Volume IV, Number 2, Winter 1994, pg. 49. The views of ten prominent Buddhists, ranging from the Buddha to Philip Glass, on whether Buddhism allows meat eating.

Page, Tony, Ph.D., Buddhism and Animals: A Buddhist Vision of Humanity's Rightful Relationship with the Animal Kingdom, UKAVIS Publications, London, 1999, 297 pages. Relying on extensive citations from the early scriptures of both major schools of Buddhism, Theravada and Mahayana, Dr. Page builds an impressive case that the Buddhadharma calls us to abandon all forms of animal exploitation. Includes background material that will be helpful to non-Buddhists. Available from the United Kingdom Anti-Vivisection Information Service (UKAVIS), P.O. Box 4746, London, SE11 4XF, England.

Page, Tony, Ph.D., What Does Buddhism Say About Animals?, UKAVIS, London, 1998, 31 pages. Intended primarily for older children and teenagers, this booklet presents in simple, straightforward terms the Buddhist arguments for not exploiting animals. Available from UKAVIS.

Phelps, Norm, The Great Compassion: Frequently Asked Questions About Buddhism and Animal Rights, The Fund for Animals, 2002, New York. This is the second booklet in The Fund for Animals' series, Frequently Asked Questions About Religion and Animal Rights. Arguing that Buddhist teachings on the true nature of reality, reincarnation, and compassion require a vegan diet and respect for the rights of animals, Phelps answers questions such as "What does Buddhism teach about animals?" "Did the Buddha teach Vegetarianism?" and "Doesn't the Dalai Lama eat meat?"

Spalde, Annika and Strindlund, Pelle, Every Creature a Word of God. Cleveland, OH: Vegetarian Advocates Press, 2008, 162 pages. The authors show that Christianity has a long, powerful, and inspiring history of animal protectionism. Monks, mystics, and teachers have all recognized that each animal is a word from God, to which we are called to respond with love and compassion. Sometimes, Spalde and Strindlund have found out, this means risking imprisonment for civil disobedience in order to protect God’s creatures.

Weintraub, Eileen, "Life as a Vegetarian Tibetan Buddhist Practitioner: A Personal View," in Satya, Catherine Clyne, editor-in-chief, Volume VI, Issue 8, May 2000, pg. 29. Weintraub, an American Buddhist who has studied in China and Tibet, discusses the historical reasons why most Tibetans eat meat, and calls upon Buddhists to adopt a vegetarian diet to "help slow the grinding wheels of samsara, bringing to a halt the cycles of suffering of the entire animal realm . . ."


Akers, Keith, The Lost Religion of Jesus: Simple Living and Nonviolence in Early Christianity, Lantern Books, New York, 2000, 260 pages. Using ancient Christian sources, a pioneering vegetarian scholar (A Vegetarian Sourcebook, Putnam's, 1983) argues that the original teaching of Jesus was based on nonviolence, voluntary poverty, opposition to animal sacrifice, and vegetarianism. Solidly researched, this is one of the most important books about the "historical Jesus" since Schweitzer published The Quest for the Historical Jesus a century ago. Foreword by Walter Wink.

Dear, John, S.J., Christianity and Vegetarianism: Pursuing the Nonviolence of Jesus, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, Norfolk, VA, undated, 18 pages. An articulate introduction to vegetarianism as Christian practice by a Roman Catholic priest who is a longtime peace activist. Father Dear sees vegetarianism as an essential component of a life based on the principles of nonviolence. Click here for details.

Friedrich, Bruce, and Andrew Linzey, "Was Jesus a Vegetarian?" in The Animals' Agenda, Kim Stallwood, editor-in-chief, Volume 20, Number 1, January-February, 2000, pg. 22. Friedrich, a practicing Roman Catholic and director of vegetarian campaigns for People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, and Linzey, the prominent Anglican animal rights theologian, debate the issue of Jesus' diet and its significance for Christian animal advocates.

Hyland, J.R., God's Covenant With Animals: A Biblical Basis for the Humane Treatment of All Creatures, Lantern Books, New York, 2000, 107 pages. A completely revised and updated edition of Reverend Hyland's (she is an ordained evangelical minister) groundbreaking The Slaughter of Terrified Beasts (Viatoris Ministries, 1988), with four new chapters added. Focusing primarily on animal sacrifice, God's Covenant also deals insightfully with vegetarianism and other issues.

Johnson, Kenneth E., M.D., Mormon Wisdom and Health: A Medical Review of Mormon Doctrine, Cedar Fort, Inc, Springville, UT, 1993,
145 pages. Demonstrates why, for reasons of health and religious doctrine, Mormons should be vegetarians. Foreword by Neal Barnard, M.D.

Kaufman, Stephen R., M.D., and Nathan Braun. Good News for All Creation: Vegetarianism as Christian Stewardship. Cleveland, OH: Vegetarian Advocates, 2002, 123 pages. This book is a primer on the reasons why many Christians have chosen a plant-based diet, and it offers practical advice on nutrition, interacting with family and friends, and how to be effective disciples of a nonviolent Christian witness.

Kinmont, Joyce, Diet Decisions for Latter-day Saints, Archive Publishers, Grantsville, UT, 1999, 159 pages. Argues on Biblical, theological, historical, and health grounds that Mormons are called to be vegetarians. Available from Latter Day Saint Home Education Association, 2770 South 1000 West, Perry, UT, 84302, (no official connection to LDS church).

Linzey, Andrew, Christianity and the Rights of Animals, Crossroad Publishing, New York, 1991, 197 pages. This is the classic presentation of a Christian theology of animal rights. In it, Doctor Linzey, an Anglican priest who holds the chair of Christian theology and animal welfare at Mansfield College, Oxford University, argues that our dominion over animals gives us a "priestly function" to nurture and protect them, which we pervert when we exploit them for our own benefit or pleasure.

Linzey, Andrew, Animal Theology, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1995, 214 pages. Reverend Linzey argues for a "theology of generosity" according to which "the uniqueness of humanity consists in its ability to become the servant species . . . as co-participants and co-workers with God in the redemption of the world." From this perspective, he provides critiques of various forms of animal exploitation, including hunting, meat eating, vivisection, and genetic engineering.

Linzey, Andrew, Animal Gospel, Westminster John Knox Press, Louisville, KY, 1998, 171 pages. Less formal and more personal than Reverend Linzey's earlier books, this is a collection of 16 essays on subjects such as "Animal rights as religious vision," "Why church teaching perpetuates cruelty," and "Christ-like ministry to other creatures." The first essay, "Overview: Gospel Truths About Animals," is an excellent introduction to animal rights as Christian practice.

Linzey, Andrew, "Christianity and Animals," in The Way of Compassion: Survival Strategies for a World in Crisis, Martin Rowe, editor, Stealth Technologies, New York, 1999, page 37. A brief, but interesting, discussion of the role and status of animals in Christianity.

Skriver, Carl Anders. The Forgotten Beginnings of Creation and Christianity (Denver: Vegetarian Press, 1990). 175 pages. Skriver gives a vegetarian theological interpretation to the first chapters of Genesis, discussing Adam and Eve, Cain and Abel, and Noah. He argues that Jesus continued the vegetarian beginnings of creation in the tradition of the prophets who protested animal sacrifices and the vegetarian and pacifist Essenes.

Stratton, Richard D.,  compiler.  Kindness to Animals and Caring for the Earth: Selections from the Sermons and Writings of Latter-Day Saint Church Leaders. Inkwater Press, Portland, 2004.  This unique text contains over 200 statements and stories on kindness to animals and caring for the earth from leaders, scholars, scientists, astronauts, historians, and frontiersmen of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormon). 

Vaclavik, Charles. The Vegetarianism of Jesus Christ: The Pacifism, Communalism, and Vegetarianism of Primitive Christianity (Three Rivers, California: Kaweah Publishing Company, 1987).  352 pages. Vaclavik argues for Jesus' vegetarianism, saying that Jesus was in the tradition of Jewish Pythagoreanism, and that the early Christians also practiced communalism and pacifism.

Webb, Stephen H., Good Eating: The Bible, Diet, and the Proper Love of Animals, Brazos Press, 2001, Grand Rapids, MI, 272 pages. Webb advocates vegetarianism as a Christian practice closely connected to fasting. Opposed to animal rights, which he views as incompatible with Biblical and Christian teaching on the nature of creation and humanity's place in it, he advocates vegetarianism and compassionate treatment of animals as expressions of Christian faith and stewardship. "The unexamined meal," he tells us, "is not worth eating."

Webb, Stephen H., On God and Dogs: A Christian Theology of Compassion for Animals, Oxford University Press, New York/Oxford, 1998, 222 pages. An insightful examination by a Protestant theologian of our proper relationship to animals in the light of Christian history and theology. Focusing primarily upon companion animals, Webb argues against natural rights in favor of an "ethic of compassion" that interprets "the crucifixion as the demand to end all involuntary sacrifices . . ."

White, Ellen G. "Flesh As Food," in The Ministry of Healing (Mountain View, California: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 1974), p. 205-209. Ellen White is the founder and prophet of the Seventh-day Adventist movement, and in this short essay she outlines the ethical reasons why we should not eat meat. 

Young, Richard Alan, Is God a Vegetarian? Christianity, Vegetarianism, and Animal Rights, Open Court, Chicago, 1999, 187 pages. A thorough analysis of the Bible's teachings on vegetarianism and animal rights by a Baptist theologian. Young's conclusion is that "The Bible neither commands nor condemns vegetarianism. It is left as a choice. However, as we locate our story in God's story, it is difficult to avoid the implication that vegetarianism is the best dietary choice for Christians."


Masri, Al-Hafiz Basheer Ahmad. Animals in Islam. Petersfield, England: Athene Trust, 1989. 212 pages. A detailed analysis of the Qur'an and Islam as it relates to animals.

Ahmed, Rafeeque. Islam and Vegetarianism. Awaiting full bibliographic details.


Chapple, Christopher Key, Nonviolence to Animals, Earth, and Self in Asian Traditions, State University of New York Press, 1993, Albany, NY, 146 pages. Chapple traces the concept of "ahimsa," "nonviolence, harmlessness," in the Indian religions to the pre-Aryan Indus Valley Civilization, whose writing has yet to be deciphered. He considers Jainism, and to a lesser degree Buddhism, to be the preservers and propagators of this lost religion. Chapple analyzes the role of ahimsa, including nonviolence toward animals, in Jainism, Buddhism, and Hinduism, and considers its relevence for reforming Western civilization.

Vijayji, Muni Nandibhushan, "Non-Violence in Action," in The Way of Compassion: Survival Strategies for a World in Crisis, Martin Rowe, editor, Stealth Technologies, 1999, pg. 25. A Jain priest gives a brief (four pages) but clear explanation of the Jain teaching of nonviolence toward all living beings. An excellent introduction to the Jain teaching on animals.


Berman, Louis, Vegetarianism and the Jewish Tradition. New York: K'tav, 1982. The book is relatively short (the main text is only 72 pages) but it is a pioneering work that advocates vegetarianism based on strong Jewish mandates related to health, compassion for animals, and sharing with hungry people.

Bleich, Rabbi J. David, "Vegetarianism and Judaism," Tradition, Vol. 23, No. 1 (Summer, 1987). This article can also be found in Bleich, Rabbi J. David, Contemporary Halakhic Problems. Volume III. New York: Ktav, 1989, 237-250b. This noted Torah scholar and professor at Yeshiva University, a critic of vegetarian activism, concedes that "Jewish tradition does not command carnivorous behavior" and that meat "may be eschewed when there is not desire and a fortiori, when it is found to be repugnant."

Cohen, Rabbi Alfred, "Vegetarianism From a Jewish Perspective," Journal of Halacha and Contemporary Society, Vol. I, No. II (Fall, 1981). This article can also be found in Kalechofsky, Roberta, Judaism and Animal Rights: Classical and Contemporary Responses. Marblehead, Massachusetts: Micah Publications, 1992, 176-194. Important, comprehensive article by an Orthodox scholar; while taking a somewhat equivocal position toward ethical vegetarianism, Rabbi Alfred Cohen provides sources that show that Jews need not eat meat at any time.

Cohen, Noah J., Tsa'ar Ba'alei Chayim - The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Its Bases, Development, and Legislation in Hebrew Literature. New York: Feldheim, 1979. Thorough survey of the laws and lore relating to animals and their treatment in the Jewish tradition.
Contains many applications of tsa'ar ba'alei chayim, the Torah mandate to avoid causing any unnecessary pain to animals. It also contains a defense of "shechitah" - the Torah's method of ritual slaughter.

Green, Joe, The Jewish Vegetarian Tradition. South Africa: 1969. Fine discussion of many aspects in the Jewish tradition, such as compassion for animals, which point toward vegetarianism as a Jewish ideal.

Green, Joe. "Chalutzim of the Messiah -- The Religious Vegetarian Concept as Expounded by Rabbi Abraham Isaac HaKohen Kook" (text of a lecture given in Johannesburg, South Africa). Outline of some of Rav Kook's vegetarian teachings.

Kalechofsky, Roberta, Vegetarian Judaism. Marblehead, Massachusetts: Micah Publications, 1998. Updated, comprehensive analysis of reasons Jews should adopt vegetarianism. Has extensive coverage of several recent vegetarian-related issues, including mad-cow disease, genetically modified foods, and antibiotics in animal feed.

Kalechofsky, Roberta, editor. Rabbis and Vegetarianism: An Evolving Tradition. Marblehead, Massachusetts: Micah Publications, 1995. The 17 rabbis with articles in the anthology are a varied group: Orthodox, Conservative, Reform, and Reconstructionist; male and female; modern and from previous generations; recent converts to vegetarianism as well as long-time proponents.

Kalechofsky, Roberta, A Boy, A Chicken, and The Lion of Judea - How Ari Became a Vegetarian. Marblehead, Massachusetts: Micah Publications, 1995. How a Jewish boy in Israel overcomes family and peer-pressure to "take charge of his stomach."

Kalechofsky, Roberta, Vegetarianism and the Jewish Holidays. Marblehead, Massachusetts: Micah Publications, 1993. (Green Mitzvah Booklet) Questions and answers about vegetarian connections to Jewish festivals. Recipes are included.

Kalechofsky, Roberta, editor. Judaism and Animals Rights: Classical and Contemporary Responses. Marblehead, Massachusetts: Micah Publications,1992. A wide varieties of articles on animal rights, vegetarianism, animal experimentation, from the perspective of Judaism.

Kalechofsky, Roberta, Haggadah For the Vegetarian Family. Marblehead, Massachusetts, Micah Publications, 1988. Good material for the Passover Seder for families with children.

Kalechofsky, Roberta, Haggadah for the Liberated Lamb. Marblehead, Massachusetts: Micah Publications, 1985. Resource material for conducting a vegetarian Passover seder, with supplementary readings.

Kook, Rabbi Abraham Isaac HaKohen, A Vision of Vegetarianism and Peace (Hebrew). This includes an English translation, an introduction, and a summary by Rabbi Jonathan Rubenstein. The vegetarian philosophy of this great Jewish leader and thinker who was Chief Rabbi of pre-state Israel.

Kook, Rabbi Abraham Isaac HaKohen, "Fragments of Light: A View as to the Reasons for the Commandments," in Abraham Isaac Kook, Collected Works, edited and translated by Ben Zion Bokser, New York; Paulist Press, 1978. A summary of Rav Kook's thoughts on vegetarianism.

Pick, Philip, ed., The Tree of Life: An Anthology of Articles Appearing in The Jewish Vegetarian, 1966-1974. New York: A. S. Barnes, 1977. A wide variety of essays and editorials from the Jewish Vegetarian on many aspects of the relationship between Judaism and vegetarianism.

Raisin, Jacob A., Humanitarianism of the Laws of Israel: Kindness to Animals. Jewish Tract 06, Cincinnati, Ohio: Union of American Hebrew Congregations. Concise summary of laws in the Jewish tradition relating to kindness to animals.

Schochet, Rabbi Elijah J., Animal Life in Jewish Tradition. New York: K'tav, 1984. Thorough, well-documented consideration of all aspects of animal issues, from a traditional perspective by a Conservative pulpit rabbi and scholar.

Schwartz, Richard H., Judaism and Vegetarianism. New York: Lantern, 2001, updated and revised version of book that argues that the realities of animal-based diets and modern intensive animal-based agriculture violate Jewish mandates to preserve health, treat animals compassionately, protect the environment, conserve natural resources, help hungry people, and pursue peace. Many questions commonly asked of Jewish vegetarians are addressed.

Schwartz, Richard H., Judaism and Animal Issues. Marblehead, Massachusetts: Micah Publications, 1993. (Green Mitzvah Booklet), questions and answers on Jewish teachings about animals.

Schwartz, Richard H., Judaism, Health, Nutrition, and Vegetarianism. Marblehead, Massachusetts: Micah Publications,1993. (Green Mitzvah Booklet), addresses Jewish and general health and nutrition issues in a question and answer form.

Sears, Rabbi David, The Vision of Eden: Animal Welfare and Vegetarianism in Jewish Law and Mysticism. Spring Valley, New York: Orot, 2003.  This book is the most comprehensive collection of translations from original source texts in English thus far, combining Talmudic, Kabbalistic, and Chassidic erudition with up-to-date information about animal welfare issues, and the impact of diet on human health and the environment.  Also includes six insightful chapter essays.  It is now published by Orot.  The author is a Breslov Chassid who is also the author of Compassion for Humanity in the Jewish Tradition (Jason Aronson 1998).  You can view his own web site at


Adams, Carol J., The Inner Art of Vegetarianism: Spiritual Practicesfor Body and Soul.  Lantern Books, 2000, New York, 176 pages.  The pioneering ecofeminist philosopher presents vegetarianism as "a living ahimsa," that "acknowledges the interconnectedness of all beings and enacts compassion toward them." he also urges activists who may be at risk of burnout to adopt a spiritual practice such as meditation or journaling, and provides practical, nonsectarian advice on getting started. The companion volumes "The Inner Art of Vegetarianism Workbook" and "Meditations on the Inner Art of Vegetarianism," also from Lantern Books, complete the Inner Art trilogy.

Berry, Rynn, Food for the Gods: Vegetarianism and the World's Religions, Pythagorean Publishers, New York, 1998, 374 pages. Thoughtful and informative essays by a prominent vegetarian scholar on vegetarianism and nine major religious traditions, including Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism. Each essay is paired with an interview with a vegetarian representative of that tradition.

Berry, Rynn, Famous Vegetarians and their Favorite Recipes: Lives and Lore from Buddha to the Beatles, Pythagorean Publishers, New York, 1999 (revised edition), 281 pages. Biographical sketches of 33 famous vegetarians, including religious figures such as the Buddha, Lord Mahavira, Jesus, Leo Tolstoy, and Mahatma Gandhi. Each biography is followed by vegetarian recipes enjoyed by the subject or (in some historical instances) known to have been popular in that era.

Carman, Judy, Peace to All Beings: Veggie Soup for the Chicken's Soul, Lantern Books, New York, 2003, 280 pages. All Beings draws inspiration from a variety of spiritual and religious traditions. Includes an excellent collection of prayers and blessings and a well-written narrative by an author who believes that "Our destiny is to become Homo Ahimsa.

Carse, James, "Memoirs of a Flyfisherman," in The Way of Compassion: Survival Strategies for a World in Crisis, Martin Rowe, editor, Stealth Technologies, New York, 1999, pg. 9. Carse, a Professor of Religion at New York University, discusses the ways that we become desensitized to the truth that animals, including fish, are sentient "creatures of God." He calls upon us not to lose our sense of "the mystery of their being."

Free, Ann Cottrell, editor, Animals, Nature, and Albert Schweitzer, Flying Fox Press, Washington, D.C., 1988, 83 pages. Quotations from the advocate of "reverence for life," organized by subject and including sensitive and informative commentary by the editor.

Kasten, Deborah. Feeding the Body, Nourishing the Soul. Berkeley, California: Conari Press, 1997. Discussions of spiritual values of the world's religions and traditions related to foods.

Kowalski, Gary, The Souls of Animals, Stillpoint Publishing, Walpole, NH, 1991, 114 pages. A Unitarian-Universalist minister examines questions such as "Are animals aware of death?" "Do animals know right from wrong?" and "Are Animals conscious of themselves?" He concludes that "Animals, like us, are living souls. They are not things. They are not objects . . . With us they share the gifts of consciousness and life."

Kowalski, Gary, The Bible According to Noah: Theology as if Animals Mattered, Lantern Books, New York, 2001, 122 pages. Each chapter opens with a passage from the Bible, such as the creation story or the story of Noah, followed by a discussion of the issues which the story raises regarding our relationship to animals, and then concludes with a retelling of the scriptural passage modified to incorporate insights from the discussion.

Murti, Vasu, They Shall Not Hurt or Destroy: Moral and Theological Objections to the Human Exploitation of Nonhuman Animals, Vasu Murti, Oakland, CA, undated, 199 pages. Primarily an extensive survey of Biblical and Christian teaching in defense of animals. Also includes chapters on ancient Greece, Islam, and Baha'i. An outstanding sourcebook. Available from Vasu Murti, 30 Villanova Lane, Oakland, CA, 94611 and online through PETA's website.

Phelps, Norm, "Why the Animals Need Religion," in The Animals' Agenda, Kim Stallwood, editor-in-chief, September/October, 1999, pg. 42. The Fund for Animals' spiritual outreach director argues that in order to succeed the animal protection movement must reach out proactively to organized religion.

Phelps, Norm, Love for All Creatures: Frequently Asked Questions about the Bible and Animal Rights, The Fund for Animals, New York, 2001, 27 pages. Phelps provides concise and credible answers to questions like "Didn't God give us dominion over animals?" "Didn't God give humanity permission to use animals for food?" "Weren't Jesus' disciples fishers" and "Didn't Saint Paul say that Christians who are vegetarians have 'weak faith?'" Cites both Jewish and Christian authorities and scholars.

Phelps, Norm, The Dominion of Love: Animal Rights According to the Bible, Lantern Books, New York, 2002. Takes a three-pronged approach by: 1) showing that animal rights flow naturally from the Bible's message of love and compassion; 2) examining the Bible's most important passages dealing with our relationship to animals; and 3) responding to defenses of animal exploitation that are often made on the basis of the Bible. Includes an extensive index of Biblical passages relating to animals.

Randour, Mary Lou, Animal Grace: Entering a Spiritual Relationship with Our Fellow Creatures, New World Library, Novato, CA, 2000, 167 pages. In this elegant meditation on the inter-relatedness of our spiritual development and our relationship with animals, Dr. Randour, a professional psychologist, draws on both Eastern and Western spiritual traditions.

Regenstein, Lewis G., Replenish the Earth: A History of Organized Religion's Treatment of Animals and Nature - Including the Bible's Message of Conservation and Kindness toward Animals, The Crossroad Publishing Company, New York, 1991, 304 pages. An accessibly written survey from Genesis to 1990 by an environmental and animal protection activist.  The main emphasis is on Christianity, but there is a long chapter on Judaism and shorter chapters on Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Islam, and Baha'i.

Rosen, Steven, Diet for Transcendence: Vegetarianism and the World Religions, Torchlight Publishing, Badger, CA, 1997, 135 pages. A highly readable survey of vegetarianism and animal protection in the teachings of Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Zoroastrianism, Sikhism, Jainism, Buddhism, and Hinduism by a vegetarian scholar with a strong background in both Eastern and Western religions. Originally published in 1987 by Bala Books as Food for the Spirit.

Walters, Kerry S. and Lisa Portness, Religious Vegetarianism: From Hesiod to the Dalai Lama, State University of New York Press, Albany, 2001, 203 pages. Excerpts from writings on vegetarianism as spiritual practice from Orphism/Pythagoreanism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

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